In this post, I will explain why you encountered an error Teradata Error 3504 SQLState HY000 Selected non-aggregate values must be part of the associated group while executing the SQL query in Teradata. I will present the cause of the problem and show how to avoid the error in the future.
Table of Contents
Teradata is a powerful and scalable relational database management system (RDBMS) that is designed for large-scale data warehousing and business intelligence (BI) applications. It is developed and maintained by Teradata Corporation, and is used by businesses and organizations around the world to store, manage, and analyze large volumes of structured data.
Teradata is based on a shared-nothing architecture, which means that each node in a Teradata database system has its own processors, memory, and storage, and can operate independently of the other nodes. This allows Teradata to scale horizontally and support very large amounts of data and high levels of concurrency.
Teradata is optimized for data warehousing and BI applications, and provides a number of features and capabilities to support these types of workloads. For example, it supports columnar data storage, which can improve the performance of data warehouse queries that scan large numbers of columns. It also supports parallel query processing and data loading, which can improve the performance of ETL (extract, transform, and load) operations.
Overall, Teradata is a powerful and scalable database system that is well-suited for large-scale data warehousing and BI applications. It is widely used in industry and has a large and active user community.
The error message “3504: Selected non-aggregate values must be part of the associated group” in Teradata indicates that you are trying to use a non-aggregate value in a SELECT statement without including it in a GROUP BY clause. This is not allowed in Teradata because non-aggregate values are not defined for groups of rows; they are defined only for individual rows.
Error 3504 occurs when grouping data in Teradata using the GROUP BY statement. Whether you only write the DML (SELECT) query or use it during a DDL operation (e.g. CREATE VIEW), you’ll get the same error. Here is the easiest way to receive an error message:
SELECT EMPLOYEE_ID, AVG(SALARY) FROM EMPLOYEES ORDER BY 1;
The purpose of the above query is to calculate the average salary for all employees. However, something is probably missing …
No GROUP BY statement
During using grouping functions (e.g. SUM, COUNT, AVG), you must remember to apply the GROUP BY clause between the WHERE command and HAVING / ORDER BY. The order of the SQL operation is as follows:
- SELECT <table1.attributes>, AVG (attribute)
- FROM table1
- JOIN (INNER JOIN / LEFT / RIGHT / FULL OUTER JOIN) table2
- ON table1.attribute = table2.attribute
- WHERE <condition>
- GROUP BY <attributes>
- HAVING <condition>
- ORDER BY <attributes>
Exception – you do not have to use the GROUP BY clause during grouping data without using additional attributes, but it is used rarely.
Selected Non-Aggregate Values Must Be Part Of The Associated Group – Means Invalid Number Of Attributes
The problem Selected non-aggregate values must be part of the associated group may also occur if you already have the GROUP BY clause in your query and it means that the list of arguments in the GROUP BY clause is incomplete, i.e. not all arguments that are used with grouping functions were included in GROUP BY line, e.g .:
SELECT EMPLOYEE_ID, YEAR, AVG(SALARY) FROM EMPLOYEES GROUP BY EMPLOYEE_ID ORDER BY 1,2;
In the above query, after the SELECT statement we have 2 attributes EMPLOYEE_ID and YEAR, but only the EMPLOYEE_ID attribute is used with GROUP BY clause – it will not work. (Teradata Error 3504 SQLState HY000)
Always use the GROUP BY clause for grouping functions
To fix this error, you need to either include the non-aggregate value in the GROUP BY clause or use an aggregate function, such as SUM or COUNT, to operate on the value.
Here is an example of a query that would generate this error:
SELECT col1, col2, col3 FROM mytable GROUP BY col1;
In this example, the SELECT clause includes three columns, but only one column (col1) is included in the GROUP BY clause. This would generate the error “3504: Selected non-aggregate values must be part of the associated group” because col2 and col3 are non-aggregate values that are not included in the GROUP BY clause.
To fix the error, you could either include col2 and col3 in the GROUP BY clause, or use an aggregate function to operate on these values:
SELECT col1, col2, col3 FROM mytable GROUP BY col1, col2, col3;
SELECT col1, SUM(col2), COUNT(col3) FROM mytable GROUP BY col1;
In practice, queries with grouping functions without additional attributes are very rarely used, e.g .:
SELECT SUM(SALARY) FROM EMPLOYEES;
Certainly they are helpful during tests or searching for general sums or numbers of e.g. clients from the beginning of the company’s existence. Usually, we need more complicated calculations. So always remember to include the GROUP BY clause.
Make sure the argument list is correct
Always make sure that the list of arguments after the SELECT clause match the list of attributes in the GROUP BY command, e.g .:
SELECT EMPLOYEE_ID, YEAR, AVG(SALARY) FROM EMPLOYEES GROUP BY EMPLOYEE_ID, YEAR ORDER BY 1,2;
in Teradata, non-aggregate values are values that are not computed using an aggregate function (e.g. SUM, MIN, MAX, etc.). When you include non-aggregate values in the SELECT list of a query, you must also include a GROUP BY clause that defines how the non-aggregate values should be grouped.
To fix this error, you will need to include a GROUP BY clause in the query that defines how the non-aggregate values should be grouped.
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