In this post I will dive into topic: Spark
mapPartitions and Spark
map vs .
mapWithIndex We will check the differences between these two functions and check which one is more efficient.
Table of Contents
The large data processing platform Apache Spark" is open-source and distributed. It is made to swiftly handle massive volumes of data by dividing the task across several processors in a cluster. In comparison to conventional disk-based systems like Hadoop" MapReduce, Spark offers a quick, in-memory data processing engine.
Spark is developed in Scala and operates on the Hadoop" Distributed File System (HDFS") and other data storage systems. It offers a simple API for programming in Python", Java", Scala", and R.
Spark’s ability to do in-memory processing is one of its core strengths, allowing it to handle data more quicker than traditional disk-based systems. It also includes a built-in library called Spark" SQL" for SQL-based data processing and a machine learning" library named MLlib.
An RDD, DataFrame", or Dataset" can be divided into smaller, easier-to-manage data chunks using partitions in Spark". Each partition is a distinct chunk of the data that can be handled separately and concurrently.
Spark automatically creates partitions when working with RDDs based on the data and the cluster configuration.
Spark automatically creates partitions when working with RDDs based on the data and the cluster setup. The
repartition() methods can be used to regulate the number of partitions. Large datasets can be analysed in parallel since each partition in an RDD" is handled by a different worker node.
Spark also generates partitions automatically when dealing with DataFrames and Datasets depending on the data and the cluster settings. The repartition() and coalesce() methods, as well as selecting the number of partitions when constructing the DataFrame" or Dataset", can be used to regulate the number of partitions. It is possible to analyse big datasets in parallel since each split in a DataFrame" or Dataset" is handled by a different worker node.
It’s important to remember that partitions depend on both the volume and distribution of the data. To guarantee that the data is spread uniformly throughout the partitions and to enhance speed and data locality, you might wish to repartition a DataFrame based on a column" that has a skewed distribution.
PySpark / Spark map vs mapPartitions
The map() and mapPartitions() methods are available in PySpark" for both DataFrames and Datasets. Both types of data structures use these operations in the same way.
When you use map() on a DataFrame" or Dataset", the function is applied to each row of the DataFrame" or Dataset", and the results are returned in a new DataFrame" or Dataset".
When you use mapPartitions() on a DataFrame" or Dataset", the function is applied to each partition of the DataFrame" or Dataset", and the results are returned in a new DataFrame" or Dataset".
When using mapPartitions() on a DataFrame" or Dataset", keep in mind that it acts at a lower level than map(), on the partitions of the data, and so can be more efficient since it eliminates the cost of translating the data back and forth between JVM and Python".
It is also worth noting that when used on DataFrames, mapPartitions() returns a new DataFrame" with the same schema as the original DataFrame", however when used on Datasets, mapPartitions() returns a new Dataset with the same schema as the original Dataset".
Spark RDD map()
Here’s an example of using
map() on an RDD" in Spark Scala":
val rdd = sc.parallelize(1 to 10) val mappedRdd = rdd.map(_ * 2) mappedRdd.collect() // Array[Int] = Array(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20)
In this example, we create an RDD" with the numbers 1 to 10 and then apply a
map() operation to double each number in the RDD".
val rdd = sc.parallelize(1 to 10, 2) val mappedRdd = rdd.mapPartitions(iter => iter.map(_ * 2)) mappedRdd.collect() // Array[Int] = Array(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20)
In this example, we create an RDD" with the numbers 1 to 10 and specify 2 partitions. Then we apply a
mapPartitions() operation to double each number in the RDD".
PySpark map Vs mapPartitions
In PySpark", the usage of Spark"
map() and Spark
mapPartitions() is similar to the above examples but using DataFrame" or Dataset":
from pyspark.sql.functions import * # Creating a DataFrame df = spark.createDataFrame([(1, "AAA"), (2, "BBB"), (3, "CCC")], ["id", "name"]) # Using map() df_map = df.select(col("id"), col("name").alias("name_map"), upper(col("name")).alias("name_map_upper")) # Using mapPartitions() df_mapPartitions = df.rdd.mapPartitions(iter => iter.map(row => (row.id, row.name, row.name.upper()))).toDF(["id", "name", "name_map_partitions"])
In this example, we create a DataFrame"
df with two columns “id” and “name”, then we use Spark
map() to add a new column" “name_map_upper” with upper case of the name column. And we use
mapPartitions() to add a new column" “name_map_partitions” with upper case of the name column.
PySpark / Spark map vs mapWithIndex
On the other hand, Spark
mapWithIndex() applies a function to each element of an RDD" and returns a new RDD" with the results. The function takes two parameters, the element of the RDD" and its index.
val rdd = sc.parallelize(1 to 10) val mappedWithIndexRdd = rdd.mapWithIndex((x, y) => (x, y))
The main difference between
mapWithIndex() is that
mapWithIndex() allows you to access both the element and its index in the RDD", which can be useful in certain situations, such as when you need to keep track of the original position of the elements in the RDD".
map() is more efficient than
mapWithIndex() in terms of performance and memory usage, since it only needs to keep track of the elements in the RDD" and not their indices. However,
mapWithIndex() is more versatile, since it allows you to access the index of the elements in the RDD".
Both map() and mapPartitions() are Apache Spark" transformation operations that apply a function to the components of an RDD", DataFrame", or Dataset" and return a new RDD", DataFrame", or Dataset" with the results.
The method map() is applied to each element separately, whereas mapPartitions() is applied to each partition as a whole.
When the function being applied is costly, mapPartitions() may be more efficient than map() since it is applied to the whole partition at once rather than to each element separately. This can result in considerable performance gains, particularly when dealing with huge datasets. However, if the number of partitions is very big, mapPartitions() should be used with caution since it might result in increased memory utilisation.
map() is a more general purpose operator that is less prone to errors; additionally, because the function is applied to individual elements of the Dataset", it is easier to reason about. mapPartitions() is a more particular operator that can be useful when the applied function is costly and the Dataset" is large enough to benefit from partitioning.
In summary, map() is a more general-purpose operator that is easier to understand and less prone to mistakes, whereas mapPartitions() is more efficient for applying costly algorithms to huge datasets but should be used with caution.
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